What is motherboard how does a work-
What is a motherboard?
The motherboard is the backbone of the computer that holds the hardware components of the computer together and allows them to communicate with each other.
Without it, none of the computer’s components, such as the CPU, GPU or hard drive, can interact. The performance of the motherboard is of immense importance for a computer to function well.
The most important part of a computer is the motherboard. This motherboard is connected to different types of components such as RAM, hard disk, power supply, CMOS battery, processor, and many different types of connectors.
Motherboards History –
1970- Before the invention of the chip, digital computers consisted of multiple computer circuit boards in an exceedingly card-cage case backplane, with elements connected by a collection of interconnected sockets. The central process unit (CPU), memory and peripherals were housed on separate computer circuit boards, that were obstructed into the backplane. the ever present S-100 bus of the Seventies is associate degree example of such a backplane system.
1981 – IBM Introduces the primary modern-day motherboard referred to as the (planar). it absolutely was the primary board that housed the hardware, RAM, ROM & others elements along on constant board.
1984- IBM then introduces their new AT (Advance technology) kind industrial plant motherboards. The IBM AT become a wide traced style within the booming data processor market of the Eighties.
1987- A smaller version of the initial AT motherboard referred to as the baby AT, was introduced in 1987. it absolutely was the primary laptop motherboard to possess integrate sockets for I/O ports like Serial and parallal.
1984- Then developed by intel in 1995, the motherboard that replaced the popular baby AT kind issue and outlined what the motherboard would seem like for succeeding few decades was the ATX kind issue.
We think the IBM laptop computer (1981) was the primary motherboard. At first, this element was referred to as a platelike, and within the starting of its development, it went through many further names till it absolutely was finally referred to as a motherboard.
For the primary time in laptop history, one board housed the computer’s hardware and RAM and provided audio further as several alternative functions. There was even a system referred to as a bus to manage information flow. it absolutely was a revolutionary machine that modified the long run of computing.
However, it absolutely was solely in 1984, with the arrival of IBM’s AT (Advanced Technology) motherboard that the component-based PCs we all know these days emerged. The AT kind issue has established very in style and has become the go-to kind issue among laptop makers over the years. However, this board had its issues. one in all the most issues with the IBM AT board was its monumental dimension (in addition to limiting its use in tiny cases), and it created the board overlap with the drive bay style of laptop cases at the time.
To combat this downside, a smaller version of the initial AT motherboard referred to as the “Baby AT” was introduced in 1987. the first distinction between these 2 variants was dimension – the recent full AT board was 12-inches wide, whereas the new baby AT was eight.5-inches wide. the planning modification created the IBM Baby IT motherboard additional compatible with laptop cases of the time and LED to its widespread adoption.
The Baby AT was the primary laptop motherboard to incorporate sockets for I/O ports like serial and parallel.Both the AT and Baby AT sizes were wide employed in 386, 486, and early Intel Pentium PCs and were the foremost wide used motherboards at the time. This doesn’t mean that there have been no alternative competitors within the motherboard house at the time.
LPX (Low Profile eXtension) was a competitive motherboard kind issue developed by Western Digital in 1987, and it absolutely was employed in the late Eighties and throughout the Nineties. associate degree LPX motherboard was 9-inch x 13-inch in size, used a riser card, and had completely different placement of the video, parallel, serial, and PS/2 ports compared to alternative motherboards.
What are the various sizes of motherboards?
There are usually 3 types of motherboards for desktop computers –
Motherboard Types – There are several types of motherboards, called form factors or layouts. This form factor is called Advanced Technology Extended (ATX), a technology invented by Intel. The ATX does not refer to the layout or form factor of the motherboard, but rather the power supply, the power of the PC cabinets and the connectors on the motherboard.
The Eighties and therefore the early Nineties were a desirable time for motherboard style, as each few years, a replacement normal would return, be employed by some makers, then ultimately die out. the method worked nearly like mechanism, as this era saw the discharge of Intel’s Baby AT (1985), Western digital’s LPX (1987) platform, and even IBM’s NLX (1997) kind issue.
- Standard ATX
- Micro ATX
- Mini ATX
A lot of the time micro- ATX-
ATX, MiniATX, Flex ATX, E ATX, W ATX, Nano ATX, Pico-ATX and Mobile ATX Smaller layout or form factor
Than ITX is ITX such as-
- Mini-ITX motherboard
- Nano-ITX motherboard
- Piku-ITX motherboard
A smaller layout or form factor than ATX is ITX ie.
- Mini-ITX motherboard
- Nano-ITX motherboard
- Piku-ITX motherboard
Standart ATX Motherboard –
The form issue that replaced the popular Baby AT normal and outlined what the motherboard would seem like for succeeding few decades was the ATX motherboard size.
ATX motherboard was created to boost simple use, bring higher I/O support, and created on the market at a way lower cost purpose. In terms of style philosophy, it’s primarily a Baby AT revolved ninety degrees.
In terms of dimension, a large ATX board includes a height of 305 metric linear unit (12 inches) and a dimension of 244mm (9.7 inches). The larger dimension is that the major field of the board, because it provides makers with enough house to put in larger heatsinks, Byzantine VRM solutions, larger rear-I/O, and additional enlargement slots. A large ATX motherboard, for instance, usually has seven PCIe enlargement slots, permitting you to put in up to four GPUs if your power provide will support such a configuration that’s.
There is conjointly the difficulty of “heat” with ATX motherboards. The ATX’s element arrangement hinders flow and lots of makers claimed that this resulted in but optimum cooling. the difficulty of warmth was therefore severe that Intel free a replacement BTX motherboard series in 2004, that was presupposed to fix the warmth problems and purportedly replace the ATX kind issue.
The BTX kind issue introduced changes like moving the hardware socket to the front intake fan. the concept was that recent air intake from the front would take away excess heat as quickly as doable, determination the most important downside with ATX. It tried to get rid of older standards like PS/2 and parallel ports, commutation them with further USB ports. In theory, this was a big improvement over the decade-old ATX board style.
But as history has it, the BTX kind issue ne’er reached the recognition it absolutely was meant to realize. many factors like undone prices, community approval, and widespread adoption of ATX motherboards alienated each makers and shoppers of the new platform.
The actual fact that the motherboard has enough house for extra memory, storage, and PCIe cards makes it future-proof for all types of users. It offers one the peace of mind that once new parts get discharged, the ATX motherboard can continually have an area for it.
Micro-ATX motherboards, because the name suggests, area unit smaller than lifesize ATX motherboards. They were 1st introduced in 1997 and, per Intel, were seen as a natural evolution of the ATX kind issue. pc sizes were reducing apace and makers at the time believed that a smaller form-factor motherboard was essential for a future wherever mini-PCs would be the norm.
The Micro-ATX motherboard is meant with completely different users in mind. For one, it absolutely was created to fill a void in motherboard kind factors within the late Nineties. though most users used ATX at the time, users WHO wished a smaller kind issue had to sacrifice tons in terms of capability if they went with a smaller motherboard.
In terms of dimensions, the micro-ATX motherboard is slightly smaller than the ATX with associate overall space of nine.6 x 9.6 inches (244 mm). This makes the board twenty fifth shorter long. to realize this size, there area unit some options that the motherboard designer had to sacrifice. associate M-ATX board features a most of four PCIe slots, compared to a most of seven on associate ATX board, which generally has solely 2 x16 slots.
Mini-ITX Motherboards –
If the M-ATX platform continues to be too huge for you, and you wish to make a smaller however capable desktop, another motherboard size is price considering — Mini-ITX. associate descriptor for info Technology Extended, ITX may be a little motherboard kind issue developed by VIA Technologies, 1st introduced in November 2001 with the Mini-ITX platform.
Many different versions of the ITX motherboard style, like Nano-ITX in 2003 and Pico-ITX in April 2007, are discharged since then.
ITX motherboards area unit in style thanks to their compact style and area unit typically employed in inexpensive setups in cars, network devices, set-top boxes, and different little computers. they’re seen as little, reliable platforms that may effectively power comparatively weak PCs. however mini-ITX boards, for reasons famed solely to pc enthusiasts, have taken a unique path than their primary use cases.
In terms of dimensions, the mini-ITX board is sq. in its style philosophy because it measures solely vi.7 inches (6.7 × 6.7 inches) in each length and breadth, creating the mini-ITX the littlest variety of motherboard that may still run a lifesize desktop.
Although associate M-ATX board will still perform in most aspects like associate ATX board (rear I/O, memory slots), the mini-ITX board’s size may be a compromise. For one, M-ITX boards generally solely have one PCIe lane. you furthermore may will not realize quite two RAM slots on a typical mini-ITX motherboard, that reduces the whole quantity of memory you have got in your system compared to associate M-ATX board (4 slots).
What kind of motherboard will you choose?
Now that we’ve given an in depth summary of the qualities and specifications of the various kinds of motherboards and their sizes, let’s investigate that motherboard you must get and for what use. As we’ve antecedently mentioned, not all motherboards area unit created equal, as every one of them has its strengths and weaknesses.
For example, deciding that motherboard can be for you’ll heavily depend upon what work flow you have got or what number PCIe and RAM slots you’ll use. to form the solution of that motherboard you must get easier, we’ve divided this section into 3 elements — best motherboard for a Budget laptop build, best motherboard for a gambling desktop, and best motherboard for a Mini-PC.
Budget Desktop Build-
- Select a Micro-ATX motherboard size.
- Don’t splurge on an even bigger motherboard and a lot of element slots.
If you wish to travel for a budget build, wherever a substantial total of your total budget can go toward the processor and also the graphics card, your best bet is to select up a Micro-ATX motherboard.
The rationale is quite simple: there are not any parts which will have the maximum amount of a control on your every day performance as your processor and graphics card.
These 2 parts kind the bottom for different desktop parts like storage and memory, and thus, you wish an honest hardware and GPU to even modify use of different desktop elements.
These options, whereas necessary, aren’t that helpful once it involves budget builds. Budget CPUs don’t essentially have the overclocking headroom needed to totally create use of the a lot of strong VRM resolution of ATX boards. what is more, budget builds area unit generally single-card builds, as a second GPU may push the build over the budget limit.
High-End gambling Desktop Build-
- Continually get a lifesize ATX motherboard for high-end gambling PCs.
- Offers up to seven PCIe slots, creating upgradability a cinch.
On the opposite finish of the spectrum, high-end gambling PCs area unit so much completely different from their budget counterparts. For a high-end gambling desktop, having multiple graphics or enlargement cards isn’t uncommon.
Moreover, in a very quest after supreme performance, most high-end gambling PCs are overclocked, which suggests that the motherboard has to have a strong power delivery system to match these exaggerated power necessities.
Small Form-Factor Desktop Build-
- Get a mini-ITX or micro-ATX motherboard.
- Constraints on upgradability and half accessibility.
If you wish to make a laptop with a smaller footprint, whether or not as a result of you wish it to be mobile or like a a lot of minimalist style, your best bet is to travel with a smaller mini-ITX or micro-ATX motherboard.
If you would like to save lots of a bit area and a bit cash, while still packing the foremost powerful of parts into your new desktop, M-ATX could also be what’s best for you. simply remember that you just won’t have several choices once it involves selecting your motherboard and case, and your cooling and storage might not be as expansive as they’d be in a very larger style.
Which desktop case is compatible with my motherboard?
The easy answer to the current question is – it depends. Some laptop cases will match all commonplace motherboards, however there square measure some that do not. to grasp this higher, we should always inspect the various desktop case sizes offered within the market.
If you are upgrading your desktop case and do not apprehend that motherboard you are victimization, browse our careful guide the way to check that motherboard you have got in Windows here.
There square measure primarily four common sizes for desktop cases — tiny kind issue, mini tower, middle tower and full tower. There square measure extra sizes, like extremist Tower and HTPC, however they serve a specialised purpose and square measure typically not for a typical business home, workplace or diversion desktop.
Different chipsets of computer motherboards are made of what metal?
- Gold – Printed Circuit Boards, Computer Chips (CPU), Connectors.
- Silver – Printed circuit boards, computer chips, keyboard membranes, some capacitors.
- Platinum – hard drive, circuit board material.
- Palladium – hard drive, circuit board material (capacitors).
- Copper – CPU heat sinks, wires and cables, printed circuit boards, computer chips.
- Nickel – Circuit board material.
- Tantalum – circuit board material (some capacitors).
- Cobalt – Hard Drive.
- Aluminum – printed circuit boards, computer chips, hard drives, CPU heat sinks.
- Tin – Printed circuit boards, computer chips.
- Zinc – printed circuit board.
- Neodymium – hard drives (magnets).
More info computer general concept …………
Functions of Mother Board :-
Computer mother board operates in 5 ways –
1. Component Hub: –
The motherboard acts as the central junction of a computer, connecting various parts of the computer such as RAM, hard disk, processor, power supply, Northbridge, Southbridge, etc.
2. External Peripheral Connection Slots:-
The motherboard has various slots with which various external peripheral devices or interfaces can be installed with the computer system. Such as – RAM, graphics card, sound card, etc.
3. Power Connection: –
Provides power to the various components of the computer through the motherboard.
4. Data Flow: –
All the components of the computer communicate information through the mother board.
5. BIOS –
The motherboard comes with ROM or BIOS, which is built-in with the motherboard and with which the program is installed. Through which we have Windows on the computer.
Name of different parts of motherboard –
- CPU and CPU Socket
- RAM, DRAM & RAM Slot
- ATX Power Supply
- IDE Connectors
- AGP Slot
- PCI Slot
- Parallel Port
- ISA Slot
- AGP Slot
- CMOS Backup Battery
- Integrated Connectors ( USB, Mouse, Keyboard, Display, Audio, Ethernet Port)
Name of various ports on motherboard-
- USB Port
- PS/2 Port
- VGA Port
- DVI Port
- Rear Speaker Port
- Side Speaker Port
Description of different parts of the motherboard –
Known as the microprocessor or processor, the CPU is the brain of the computer. A processor is a piece of computer hardware that controls the instructions given by a program. Following these instructions, it completes various mathematical, logical functions, control, input and output functions.
CPU (Central Processing Unit):-
A central processing unit (CPU) is a part of a computer that executes program instructions. It performs various arithmetic, logical operations, control and input output functions while following these specially given instructions. In the early 1960s, the device began to be called by this name.
Central Processing Unit (CPU) consists of the following features −
CPU is considered as the brain of the computer.
CPU performs all types of data processing operations.
It stores data, intermediate results, and instructions (program).
It controls the operation of all parts of the computer.
The Central Processing Unit (CPU) consists of the following features –
– CPU is considered as the brain of the computer.
– CPU performs all types of data processing operations.
– It stores data, intermediate results and instructions (programs).
– It controls the operation of all parts of the computer.
How many components are there in CPU-
CPU itself has following three components-
CPU itself has following three components-
- Memory or Storage Unit
- Control Unit
- ALU(Arithmetic Logic Unit)
What is Random access memory (RAM):-
Random access memory or RAM is a temporary memory, usually referred to as computer chips, which temporarily store fast data to enhance the performance of the computer while we are working. So that the processor can retrieve the data in a timely manner.
What is BIOS (ROM) :-
BIOS stands for Basic Input / Output System. BIOS read only memory, consisting of lower level software that controls the system hardware and acts as a link between the operating system and the hardware.
The system BIOS is a ROM chip on the motherboard that tests the system during the boot process and is used to prepare the hardware for management.
What is Cache memory –
Cache memory is a supporting memory of the processor, which is built-in with the processor. Cache memory usually collects data from RAM and gives it to the processor.
Hair memory usually resides in three blogs such as L-1, L-2, L-3. The capacity of hair memory cannot be increased or decreased.